Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually formed like a ring and used for sealing of flange joints. In general, gaskets should not be reused. Various types of gaskets are available depending upon their construction, materials, and features.The following are the type of gaskets commonly used: Non-Metallic Gaskets (ASME B 16.21) Spiral-Wound Gaskets (ASME B 16.20) Ring Joint Gaskets (ASME B 16.20) Non-Metallic Gaskets are used with flat face or raised face flanges.Spiral-Wound Gaskets are used with raised face flanges.They are available with an inner ring and outer ring, which is also known as the cantering ring.Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges.They are available in octagonal or oval cross sections. A very high surface stress is developed between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when RTJ is bolted up in a flange.This leads to plastic deformation of the gasket. Thus, the hardness of the gasket is kept less than the hardness of the groove to achieve coining i.e. bringing two metal surfaces of different hardness so tightly together that the softer surface deforms to match harder surface exactly in shape and finish. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting
In contrast, additional services may be performed by a plumber-Tile Fitter.
This type of specialist will be able to put tile in the kitchen and the bathroom and paint the walls in these rooms.
It will now also replacing defective cams and seals, and set the most appropriate water pressure and adjusts the stream of water flying to the needs of the household.It will also be able to check the efficiency of underfloor heating and water meter. As a result, the entire network plumbing and home heating will be able to work without complaint.
This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality.Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households.
They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century.
Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure.
About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe.